US city police officer disciplined for drawing gun/Notes
An anonymous source provided me with the document outlining use of force in the Ann Arbor Police Department. It is a FOIA-able document. I will quote the relevant sections. All bolding, underlining, etc. comes from the original document.
|PPCT — Pressure Point Control Tactics Management Systems|
|M.C.O.L.E.S. — Michigan Commission On Law Enforcement Standards|
The PPCT/M.C.O.L.E.S. Force Continuum was designed to give officers a model in which to learn the various levels of subject resistance and the appropriate subject control response. This continuum is only a model, and the officer'(s) subject control response should be based upon:
- Physical size, strength, and weaponry of the person(s) compared to the officer(s).
- Nature of the encounter.
- Actions of the person(s).
- Exigent conditions (i.e., availability of back-up, number of persons involved).
For example, an officer may resort to the use of mace before using hard empty hand controls if the officer believes the use of hard empty hand controls would be ineffective.
- Subject Actions
- Inactive Resistance: Resistance that may include psychological intimidation and/or verbal resistance (e.g., blank stare, clenching of fist(s), tightening of jaw muscles, etc.).
- Passive Resistance: Any type of resistance whereby the subject does not attempt to defeat the officer's attempt to touch and control the subject, but still will not voluntarily comply with verbal and physical attempts of control (e.g., dead weight, does not react to verbal commands, etc.)
- Active Resistance: Any action by a subject that attempts to prevent an officer from gaining control of the subject (e.g., pulling/pushing away, blocking, etc.).
- Active Aggression: Physical actions/assaults against the officer or another person with less than deadly force (e.g., advancing, challenging, punching, kicking, grabbing, wrestling, etc.)
- Deadly Force Assault: Any force used against an officer or another person that may result in great bodily harm or the loss of human life.
- Officer Response.
- Officer Presence/Verbal Direction: Identification of authority (i.e., uniformed presence, or identification as a police officer). Verbal Direction (e.g., for arrest or to control a subject's movements.) Use of Restraint Devices (i.e., compliant handcuffing).
- Compliance Controls: Soft empty hand techniques (e.g., joint locks, pressure points, etc.). Compliance control devices (e.g., baton - when used as a compliance control device).
- Physical Controls: Hard empty hand techniques (e.g., strikes, take downs).
- Intermediate Controls: Intermediate weapons (i.e., impact weapons, including pepper spray or KEIP weapons).
- Deadly Force: Any force used by an officer that may result in serious injury or the loss of human life.