Japan's National Diet passes law allowing Emperor Akihito to abdicate within three years
Monday, June 12, 2017
The newly passed law, made in response to the country's's lack of abdication provisions, applies to only Akihito, aged 83. It prohibits Akihito's successors from abdicating.
Akihito ascended to the 2,000-year-oldwhen his father died in 1989. Having a and treatment for , Akihito in a televised address last year said age and health were interfering with his duties. Per , an emperor cannot make political statements, so Akihito did not explicitly mention abdication.
When abdication happens, under new law, Akihito's son and heir apparentwill ascend the throne, becoming the country's 126th emperor. Besides Naruhito, Akihito has another son and a daughter.
Emperor Akihito's heir apparent Naruhito, born in 1960, graduated from Oxford University and married a graduate in 1993. professor Kenneth Ruoff told the BBC that, while Akihito and his wife have been active in social causes, Naruhito and Masako have done little in this regard. A emeritus professor Isao Tokoro said Naruhito "has been educated," is born, and is qualified "to be emperor[.]"
In 2006, the National Diet debated on allowing female ascendance, as the emperor lacked grandsons at the time, due to the current male-only royal ascendance laws. Then, now 10, was born, and the debate lapsed.
Naruhito has only one child, 15, while his brother , 51, has three children, including his only son Hisahito. Per current law, Hisahito is qualified to ascend after his uncle Naruhito and his father.
The royal family has 19 living members, including seven unmarried princesses and five males. Female royals, if marrying a, would have to give up their royal status, leaving the royal family, while males would still be allowed to retain their royal status after marrying a commoner. Akishino's daughter announced her plans last month to relinquish her royal status and leave the royal family in order marry a commoner Kei Komuro, a graduate student and law firm worker, both of them aged 25. In 2005, Mako's aunt and Naruhito's sister , married a commoner Yoshiki Kuroda, a town planner, and was forced to relinquish her status and leave the family.
Aprofessor Jeff Kingston said a national succession crisis has people raising concerns about female princesses leaving the royal family when getting married. Kingston added the family "[has] a shortage of male heirs." Kingston also said ousting a female royal for marrying a commoner is "a very old-fashioned approach, totally out of sync with 21st-century norms" to many people around the world, including in Japan.
In a survey byconducted in May of about 3000 people at least 18 years old, 68 percent said the Imperial Household Law should be amended to allow future emperors to abdicate. 25 percent favored separately legislating each abdication. Four percent said abdication of emperors should never be allowed.
On questions involving female royals, 86 percent said to allow empresses; 59 percent supported both empresses and established branches of female lineages. 62 percent supported establishment of separate branches for princesses retaining their roles while marrying commoners; 35 percent opposed. 61 percent said female ascendance should be debated only after the abdication, while 28 percent said it shouldn't wait for the abdication.
Early this year, the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe considered giving imperial status to branches of those who left the royal family. In the survey, 22 percent supported the idea; 72 percent opposed.
The Abe government has avoided the debate of female ascendance but recently passed a non-binding resolution attached to the newly passed abdication law to consider how to strengthen female royal status, possibly including allowing them to retain their royal titles and continue their duties, to compensate for the declining royal population.
- Joy Y. Wang and Arata Yamamoto. "Japan's Royal Household Faces Major Challenges in Line of Succession" — , June 10, 2017
- "Japan passes landmark bill for Emperor Akihito to abdicate" — , June 9, 2017
- Mari Yamaguchi. "Japan enacts law allowing Emperor Akihito, 83, to abdicate" — , June 9, 2017
- Juliet Perry, Yoko Wakatsuki, and Junko Ogura. "Japan passes historic law to allow beloved Emperor to abdicate" — , June 9, 2017
- Nandini Krishnamoorthy. "Who is Japan's next emperor? Read all about him here" — , June 9, 2017
- Philippa Fogarty. "Naruhito: Will Japan's crown prince be a 'fresh breeze' for the monarchy?" — , June 9, 2017
- Chieu Luu and Yoko Wakatsuki. "Japanese Princess Mako set to marry 'Prince of the Sea'" — , May 17, 2017
- "Most Japanese back permanent abdication system for emperors: survey" — , May 2, 2017